World War II. Thanks to such persons, German warbirds come back to life. August 1944. Albert Speer, "Fünfte Hydrier-Denkschrift vom 19, Januar 1945.". The Allied oil campaign of World War II: 11 was directed by the RAF and USAAF against facilities supplying Nazi Germany with petroleum, oil, and lubrication (POL) products. In the 1930s, Germany had a great need to become self-sufficient and one of their biggest imports was fuel. Built 40 petrochemical plants in germany and Occupied Countries to make Synthetic Fuel Oil and Rubber from Coal . Mirrorpix/Getty Images German production of steel, aluminum, coal, and synthetic oil, from 1939 to 1944, in million tons. the airforce once it was discovered that synthetic oils made the planes easier to start in winter and reduced soot deposits in oil radiators. These attacks ended in early 1945 with the virtually complete destruction of the whole site facilities by a 250-bomber raid. From May 1944, the Allies began to systematically bomb P.O.L facilities (petrol, oil, lubricants) as a way of reducing the mobility of the German forces, the Pölitz fuel factories were no exception. 29. In … As Popple also points out (p. 159), during the period of World War Two, except for oil from Russia, unavailable to Germany, only Rumania and Hungary had any significant production of oil … The large chemical company IG Fabre had a solution to the problem: by using large amounts of coal they could produce synthetic fuel. Factory workers were forced labourers and over the next five years over 30,000 were employed thousand: whilst working there, 13,000 of them died of hunger and disease. Given the limited quantities of crude oil from German-controlled oilfields, the German war machine depended extremely heavily on POL products—75 percent of its aviation gasoline—from 16 synthetic oil production plants, which turned German coal into oil. Hitler began to press for more extensive synthetic oil program in early 1934, but the German state couldn't afford the cost of 250-300 million Reichsmarks at the time. So famous was the Junkers Ju 87 that the term Stuka... Erich Rudorffer Major Erich Rudorffer (born 1 November 1917) is a German former Luftwaffe fighter ace, one of a handful who served with... German Bf 109 refueling in Russia, 1941-1942, For this reason until 1945 the German Air Force had no fuel equal to that available in the. The role of synthetic fuel in World War II Germany and implications for today by Dr. Peter B. Becker German Bf 109 refueling in Russia, 1941-1942 "T he United States is faced with an acute energy problem. Imperial War Museum, FDC 1, Report 26, Interrogation of Albert Speer; The Effects of the Allied Bombing of Germany, July 18, 1945. 22. Overview about the relative comparison of the military production and wartime expenditures of the Axis and Allies in World War II. Instead, it appealed to the coal mining interests; these were not interested (as synthetic fuel was not competitive), and were later forced to comply. The invention of the jet engine with its high engine temperatures opened the way for the first wide scale use of synthetic oils outside of wartime. The leaders of every nation involved in World War II were aware of how crucial oil supplies were to their war plans. W. Tomberg. He is the author of Electron and valence: Development of the theory 1900–1925 (1982) and of several articles on the history of synthetic fuels, the most recent “The U.S. Bureau of Mines Synthetic Fuel Programme 1920s–1950s: German connections and recent American Advances,” Annals of science, 54 (1997), 29–68.Stranges is completing a book on the international … Synthetic oil was developed before the Second World War and saw widespread use in Germany. Their scarce organic oil resources made them vulnerable to reliance on other nations during the war, particularly Austria-Hungary and neighboring Romania. Origin of F-T Process IV. 41. World War I V. Organization of the Fuel Industry Between the Wars 1. The area was conquered in late April 1945 and the Soviets quickly dismantled all the technical equipment and sent it back to Russia. Leuna was the first plant to test the Bergius process that synthesized oil products from lignite (brown coal tar in 1944). World War II was the first fully mechanized war in history, and oil, both crude and synthetic, was a major factor in military planning. We are a group of people fascinated by the history of the Luftwaffe and the undeniable influence of this formation on the development of aviation technology and break out of stereotypes futuristic thinking about aviation. Hitler had two choices: either it get by on alternatives - such as producing synthetic oil from coal, which Germany had in abundance - or secure oil through conquest. 25. Goldschmidt AG (now known as Evonik Industries) in 1914. MAZI dipllomats worked to develop trade relations with the Balkan countries and to bring the countries in the rgion into the Axis. Used by the Nazis to make oil from coal during World War II, it was commercialized by the century’s second-most-odious racial supremacist regime in … The Stuka name derived from Sturzkampfflugzeug, the generic German word for dive-bomber. In addition, with the Axis powers in control of most of the world's supply of natural rubber, there was a desperate need for the Allies to improve synthetic rubber production. As armies became more mechanized, the need for secure sources of fuel and lubricants became the sine qua non for military operations. Aide-memoire by General Georg Thomas, July 6, 1942. des Bundesarchivs, Nr. The role of synthetic fuel in World War II Germany - implications for today by Dr. Peter W. Becker, Junkers Ju87 Stuka - The story of Jericho trumpets of doom by Luis German Dzib Aguilar, Erich Rudorffer - longest living the Ace of Luftwaffe with more than 100 victories. Albert Speer, "Erste Hydrier-Denkschrift vom 30.Juni 1944. From May 1944, the Allies began to systematically bomb P.O.L facilities (petrol, oil, lubricants) as a way of reducing the mobility of the German forces, the Pölitz fuel factories were no exception. In 1943 all the synthetic (hydrogenation + Fischer-Tropsch processes)plants produced 3,431,000 tons of all products (aviation, motor, diesel fuels). Germany experienced a 26. the foreign activities of the German oil industry, Helmut Mejcher has begun a projected multivolume study on politics and oil in the Middle East before World War II with the very good Die Politik und das 01 im Nahen Osten, vol. Zentrale Planung, 20th Meeting, October 29, 1942, pp. Franz Fischer Biographical III. 1. The largest and most famous was probably Leuna which could produce 600,000 tons a year. These plants were large, complex facilities not easily dispersed or moved underground. The Luftwaffe Archives & Records Reference Group, Deutsche Luftfahrttechnik WK2 - True enthusiasts of Luftwaffe and aviation. The conclusions and opinions expressed in this document are those of the author cultivated in the freedom of expression, academic environment of Air University. Research into alternatives to petroleum oils began long before Nazi Germany invaded Poland in 1939. During World War II, when Allied Forces restricted oil access to Nazi Germany, the latter relied on synthetic oil to fuel the German military. 32. In total, these synthetic oil plants suffered fourteen raids. Zentrale Planung, 37th Meeting, April 22, 1943, p. 42. 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