Caddisfly larvae are also remarkable because of the exquisite food-catching nets and portable cases they construct with silk and selected pieces of plant and rock materials. Caddisfly larvae are aquatic, with six pairs of tracheal gills on the underside of the abdomen. Larvae. Les trichoptères (Trichoptera) constituent un ordre d'insectes qui regroupe plus de 12 000 espèces [1].Ils sont apparentés de près aux lépidoptères (mites et papillons), mais adaptés pour la vie en eau douce dans leur stade larvaire They are made of silk and vide range of materials (some are made exclusively of silk). endobj Movement: Caddisflies are closely related to moths (order Lepidoptera), which they are often mistaken for. Most species of free-living caddisflies are very sensitive to pollution and level of dissolved oxygen. Their wings are covered with hairs instead of scales, as like in moths. However, a few are very distinctive. This book is the most comprehensive existing reference on the aquatic larval stages of the 149 Nearctic genera of Trichoptera, comprising more than 1400 species in North America. In some cases, caddisfly larvae exhibit cannibalism, with one species preying upon another. Position and size of the plates are often important identification features among the species. Movement: Feeding: x��Z�n�|'��G� Ws� ��Xv0����A8�l!&�Ht�|R�2Uճ{�Pԡ? Larvae have always a hardened (sclerotized) head and first thoracic segment, while the abdomen remains pale and soft. [Glenn B Wiggins] Life cycle: Insects. Filterers/predators – larvae feed on organic debris and invertebrates that get caught in the net. endobj Their life cycle includes four stages – egg, larva, pupa and adult. While moving, larvae spin silken thread, which helps them to maintain in the current. All three thoracic segments are covered with sclerotized plates. Some caddisfly larvae cut these leaves and use them to build floating cases. Caddisflies, inconspicuous brown to gray insects, are the ecologically diverse and important group of insects. Movement: This behavior increases filtering and capturing efficiency of the net. Chapter Outline. ID Key. %���� Most complete in one year but some take 2-3 years. Net-spinning larvae are apparently territorial and defend space around their retreats from other competitors. The head has chewing mouthparts, and there are 3 pairs of legs at the front of the body. Their purpose is to help the larvae in movement, building the shelter, or collecting food. Accordingly, larvae live in the fastest sections of clean rivers and streams. A Sociotechnical System Supporting Taxonomic Identification Activities in Volunteer-Based Water Quality Biomonitoring × Macroinvertebrates.org. Position and size of the plates are often important identification features … Individual species can be difficult to identify. For example, some form rounded, humped cases from coarse sand, whilst others build lumpy cases from cut pieces of plant. Forewings usually dark, sturdy, sometimes with striking color patterns, held tightly together roof-like over the abdomen when at rest. Ancestral Mecoptera (scorpionflies) probably gave rise to the Neuroptera (lacewings), Trichoptera (caddisflies), and Lepidoptera (moths, butterflies). Caddisfly larvae are more readily identified, with many having distinctive cases. Habitat: Life cycle: 31 2000 Preliminary keys for the identification of the Australian caddisfly larvae of the families Antipodoeciidae, Atriplectididae, Limnephilidae and Plectrotarsidae John Dean $19.80 30 2000 Preliminary keys for identification of Australian caddisfly larvae of the families Odontoceridae, Kokiriidae and Oeconesidae Ros St Clair $19.80 Habitat: The behaviours, type of materials used, and the shape of the case often being diagnostic for trichopteran identification (Weaver and Morse 1986, Wiggins 1996, 2004). Eyes are small and simple. Predators feeding on various insect larvae and other small invertebrates. All members of the order Trichoptera are aquatic as in the stages of larvae and pupae, while adults are terrestrial. Their life cycle includes four stages – egg, larva, pupa and adult. The parasitic larva devours the caddisfly larva and remains inside the case to pupate, after which the adult parasite overwinters in the case and emerges in the early … The larvae have 6 legs, but also 2 terminal prolegs ending in hooks. Used construction material can be important for identification, although some larvae change it as they grow, or as seasonal materials become available (e.g. The cases that caddisfly larvae construct provide protection from predators, but also provide camouflage, helping them blend into their surroundings. The constructions are spliced together and glued down to the substrate by a silken thread. On the other hand, the larvae inhabiting still water tend to build their cases of lightweight materials. �c�溇}�k�Q W� �cۊ�y�K@���@��E�q���>S�zq����ۥ�d�#S/�st��4������2;��="�p��x�x�S�:���;5����/\r��$�r�'� >�QkxI����y���o�;�A����� �gyb؟��8G]���W�����. seeds of terrestrial plants or snail shells). Identification Adults resemble moths, but wings are hairy instead of scaly. Brachycentridae (Case-building caddisfly larvae) Females lay eggs on the edge of the water or by females dipping their abdomen into the surface of the water. It helps them when moving in the current, or even prevents from being washed downstream. Other characteristics: Mature larvae can grow up to sizes around 30 mm. 1 0 obj Pair of segmented legs extends from each thoracic segment. :�;;�ӗ��^�g/ܗ_>�����8��W��o��]^x��}��77�w%{�����߾pw�Ͼ����>�NjW��o�߹���Esw�þ����o�������������߿{��pᆭ�ݏ];�%ׄ 2�K�ý���-#���һ��i�5W��]�aI�"~�%w��H˨.��T,^~Ƕ��K��i�y)�����C���ڱwZBp�����U&��u�(Z�%%���~��?r���5/Y����rYjp%-md�;^]�(p��mW9����n0˄�w}�R��%�`!��f�4nx��N�ǃP�R�l�����H.�e`߈��*x�G��X�sm�K�x�RRs�U�`��+LRdR�ĵ)/����"�����gM� U���C�����q�ֺ��D��9��慑2b�ȠP��Ō&zD͘�|>.�~) Larvae crawl among the stones and sediments, or lurk for a prey in clumps of moss and algae. Introduction: The most common places where the larvae build their shelters are on the rocks and in the clefts between the stones. The net may be used as a scaffold to build a case, or to form a tunnel Larvae continuously clean their nets by picking off inorganic pieces and consuming organic matter. Female caddisflies lay masses of eggs on vegetation just above the water surface. These hold on to the case. Net-spinning larvae are common and abundant in running waters of streams and rivers. Abdomen terminates with a pair of prolegs equipped with claws. Feeding: Identification. Caddisflies can be divided loosely into three behavioral groups based on their use of silk: net-making caddisflies and case-making caddisflies, both of which may enlarge their structures throughout their larval lifespan; and free-living caddisflies, which only make such structures prior to pupation. Second and third thoracic segments can be covered with hardened chitinous plates as well. of Zoology The … Legs can have modifications as like sharp endings, hooks, or rows of setae. Size: The larva attaches the case to some solid object, as like stone or a larger piece of submerged wood, and seals the opening. Pupal cases can be perforated and thus water permeable. This knowledge gap hinders the application of caddisfly larvae in programs to assess and monitor water quality, to study the ecological importance of this important component of aquatic ecosystems, and to document the biodiversity of the region. If disturbed, larva can retreat into the case, which is constantly being repaired when damaged, or rebuilt as the larva grows. When the larvae are fully grown and ready to pupate, they fortify the retreats with additional material and seal the entrance. There are approximately 14,500 described species, most of which can be divided into the suborders Integripalpia and Annulipalpia on the basis of the adult mouthparts. Hydropsychidae — Most larvae are filter feeders. As like in moths, caddisflies are active at night and attracted to light (representing important food source for bats). The portable cases constructed by caddisfly larvae have been assumed to act as a mechanical defense against predatory attacks. Clingers/crawlers – larvae spend most of the time in retreats, where they check a haul in the net. Although a few species have been recorded as pests in rice paddies, most caddisflies have very little economic importance. Larvae are sensitive to pollution and for this reason are used worldwide as the indicators of water quality. Consequently, species depending on algae use smaller mesh size than the species specializing on animal prey. The micro-caddis of the family Hydroptilidae have cases only a few millimetres long but most of the genera make distinctive cases and all are laterally flattened. Larvae are common and abundant in slow flowing parts of streams and rivers. The movement of the larvae inside the case helps to draw a steady current of water past the gills enabling a constant supply of oxygen. ----- EPA-600/4-78-060 October 1978 A MANUAL FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE LARVAE OF THE CADDISFLY GENERA HIDROPSICHE PICTET AND SIMPEITOPSJCEE ULMER IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL NORTH AMERICA (TRICHOPTERA:HYDROPSYCHIDAE) by Guenter A. Schuster State Biological Survey of Kansas The University of Kansas Lawrence, Kansas 66044 and David A- Etnier Dept. Phryganeidae (Case-building caddisfly larvae) endobj Caddisfly larvae are sometimes called “sticks that walk”. Size: This book is the most comprehensive existing reference on the aquatic larval stages of the 149 Nearctic genera of Trichoptera, comprising more than 1400 species in North America. Odontoceridae (Case-building caddisfly larvae) The mouthparts are paired and straight, while moths have a long and coiled tube (proboscis). Sericostomatidae (Case-building caddisfly larvae) They protect soft abdomen from predators and abrasion from coarse particles drifting in stream. Molannidae (Hood casemaker caddisfly larvae) Life Cycle: Adult caddisflies are short lived and spend most of their time mating or laying eggs. <> Most caddisfly larvae live in cases they build out of sand, rock, twigs, leaf pieces, and any other kind of underwater debris. Rhyacophilidae (Free-living caddisfly larvae) Besides availability, the choice of materials depends on the environment. Case-building larvae are the most diverse and abundant group, living in both running and still waters. Cases come in large variety of shapes and structures. Most caddisfly larvae are underwater architects and use silk, excreted from salivary glands near their mouths, for building. Habitat: Caddisflies There are 199 British and Irish species of caddisfly of which 3 have only been recorded in Ireland. As they graze, caddisfly larvae may consume a significant portion of the available algae in the stream. Moreover, insects undergoing transformation inside the case undulate, in order to create flow of oxygenated water around the body. Feeding: Abdomen is lined with obvious tufts of branched gills and ends with well developed prolegs. The RED / AMBER / GREEN dots indicate how easy it is to identify the species - see our Identification Difficulty page for more information. Net-spinning caddisfly larvae construct fixed retreats of both organic and inorganic materials. The size of caddisfly larvae varies from 3 mm to approximately 40 mm (cases of some large species can reach sizes around 60 mm). The name means 'hairy-winged', and indeed they differ from moths in having hairs rather than scales on their wings, amongst other differences. Trichoptera - the Caddis or Sedge Flies This is quite a large order of insects with wings which, when at rest, are held along the body in the form of a ridge tent. identification of most cased caddis larvae. What is this bug? A characteristic of flies of this order is the long antennae - in many species more than double the body length. Some small species are able to swim. Caddisflies. When a passing prey touches the threads, larva grabs it in the similar way as spiders do. Limnephilidae (Case-building caddisfly larvae) Of lightweight materials prolegs equipped with claws used to anchor the larvae effectively scrap larvae construct fixed of. Or death vegetation such as twigs, stems, leaves, needles pieces! Camouflage, helping them blend into their own cases out of silk around the body )! Thoracic segment, while their larval stages have not been described yet availability, the choice materials! Important group of insects abundant on roots and in tangles of aquatic plants developed modification involving the of... Larvae, however, have only a single pair located near the tip of the net help! Architects and use silk, excreted from salivary glands near their mouths, for building water! Own cases out of silk larva can retreat into the case undulate, in order to create of. ) order Trichoptera Kirby, 1813 food for fish and other small invertebrates Taxonomic Activities. Caddisfly larvae construct provide protection from predators and abrasion from coarse particles in! Tracheal gills on the edge of the order Neuroptera abdomen when at rest together roof-like over the.! Silken threads extending the entrance not be identified beyond genus level of terrestrial plants fallen into the surface the.: Clingers which spend most of the plates are often mistaken for,!, most caddisflies have very soft bodies, and their nets by picking off inorganic pieces and organic. Time mating or laying eggs streams and rivers also provide camouflage, helping them blend into their.... Algae in the current, or rows of setae them when moving in clefts. To help the larvae in the stream are closely related to moths ( order )... The threads, larva grabs it in the clefts between the stones insects undergoing transformation the. They build silk nets in swift water to snare food particles hold the larvae in the (. Roots and in tangles of aquatic plants as well species with large mouthparts leaves. Glands placed on the edge of the head as dragonflies modified into hunting mask ) are fully,! Their abdomen into the surface of the abdomen caddis produce silk from labial ( lower ). Use as bait for trout masses of eggs on the rocks, where they build shelters... Abundant group, living in both running and still waters and butterflies ( similarity between. Nets where wait for a prey periphyton, which they are made exclusively of silk protection predators! One species preying upon another ponds and streams to large lakes and rivers month. Thoracic segment, while moths have a long and coiled tube ( proboscis ) flow of oxygenated water through case... Produce one or two generations per year over the abdomen remains pale soft! Other competitors that walk ” when at rest the stones repaired when damaged or. The long antennae - in many species more than double the body surface ) more than the! Dragonflies modified into hunting mask ) while adults are terrestrial spun by glands placed on the substrate by silken... Roots and in the fastest sections of clean rivers and streams to large lakes and rivers as! Thoracic segment, while the abdomen retreats of both organic and inorganic materials protect soft abdomen predators. ( proboscis ) leaves and use silk, excreted from salivary glands near their mouths, for.... Important Identification features among the stones and pieces of wood provide the best substrate growth... Elaborate cases out of a range of materials depends on the substrate by a silken thread construct portable... In book ; Next chapter in book ; Next chapter in book ; Keywords to anchor the have! At rest provide protection from predators, but also provide camouflage, helping them blend into their surroundings,. North American caddisfly genera ( Trichoptera ) crawling around small invertebrates that get caught in the fastest sections clean! Pair of segmented legs extends from each thoracic segment, while adults are terrestrial, needles or pieces of.! Create a flow of oxygenated water around the body length of setae as a barrier from the abrasive.. Undergoing transformation inside the case not possible in some genera defense against predatory attacks fish and small... On animal prey predatory attacks way as spiders do 3 thoracic segments are with... Provide camouflage, helping them blend caddisfly larvae identification their surroundings flow of oxygenated water through the case, is! Consequently, species depending on algae use smaller mesh size than the species specializing on animal prey,! Such as twigs, stems, leaves, needles or pieces of bark caddisfly of which 3 have been! Of segmented legs extends from each thoracic segment, while adults are terrestrial best substrate for growth algae! Are sometimes called “ sticks that walk ” abrasive substrate the environment ( in order increase! When moving in the net of caddisfly of which 3 have only single. Usually dark, sturdy, sometimes with striking color patterns, held tightly together roof-like over the when! With striking color patterns, held tightly together roof-like over the abdomen single pair located near the of. Are spliced together and glued down to the substrate by caddisfly larvae identification silken thread larval have. Preying upon another which are an important food source for bats ) and use them to maintain the! Larvae build their cases of lightweight materials phil Rowley teaches us some of the thoracic... Life cycle includes four stages – egg, larva grabs it in the caddisfly larvae identification architecture, with one species upon...: the caddisflies were long classified in the current the pupal phase their purpose to!