In influenza virus infection, viral glycoproteins attach the virus to a host epithelial cell. Figure 5. During this process, bacterial DNA de… To establish a systemic infection, the virus must enter a part of the vascular system of the plant, such as the phloem. In generalized transduction—DNA derived from virtually any portion of the host genome is packaged inside the mature virion in place of the virus genome. In a lysogenic cycle, the phage genome also enters the cell through attachment and penetration. Phage have a very simple structure (Figure 1). Lytic phages hijack the bacterial hosts machinery to make more viral particles. By themselves, viruses do not encode for all of the enzymes necessary for viral replication. The one-step multiplication curve for a bacteriophage population follows three steps: 1) inoculation, during which the virions attach to host cells; 2) eclipse, during which entry of the viral genome occurs; and 3) burst, when sufficient numbers of new virions are produced and emerge from the host cell. Nine days passed between Duncan’s exposure to the virus infection and the appearance of his symptoms. Know the basic steps associated with this. Virulent phages typically lead to the death of the cell through cell lysis. Specialized transduction is made possible by an error in the lysogenic life cycle of phages that insert their genomes into a specific site in the host chromosome. Life cycles of bacteriophages. The timeline of the Duncan case is indicative of the life cycle of the Ebola virus. Some may have more than one host. Bacterial Transduction - Generalized and Specialized Transduction: The virus mediated gene transfer in bacteria. Conversion of Bacterial cell to a Phage Factory 4. Distinguish between F+, F-, and Hfr strains. The burst size is the maximum number of virions produced per bacterium. The lytic cycle is relatively more common, wherein a virus infects a host cell, uses its metabolism to multiply, and then d… Southeast Kentucky Community and Technical College, Southeast Kentucky Community and Technical College • BIOLOGY 225. Once a person becomes infected with HIV, the virus can be detected in tissues continuously thereafter, but untreated patients often experience no symptoms for years. When a prophage is induced to leave the host chromosome, excision is sometimes carried out improperly. Genetic transfer of host gene by bacteriophage occurs in two ways-generalized transduction and specialized transduction.In generalized transduction, virtually any genetic marker can be transferred from donor to recipient cell but it occurs at a low frequency. Its double-stranded DNA genome becomes incorporated in the host DNA. However, if a virus contains a −ssRNA genome, the host ribosomes cannot translate it until the −ssRNA is replicated into +ssRNA by viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) (see Figure 5). Bacteriophages replicate only in the cytoplasm, since prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus or organelles. Lytic viruses lyse cells (completely destroy the cell due to the release of 100s of new virus particles). There are two types of transduction: generalized and specialized transduction. Given the great suffering and high mortality rates, it is fair to ask whether unregistered and untested medications are better than none at all. A temperate bacteriophage has both lytic and lysogenic cycles. This occurs through contraction of the tail sheath, which acts like a hypodermic needle to inject the viral genome through the cell wall and membrane. Researchers working with Ebola virus use layers of defenses against accidental infection, including protective clothing, breathing systems, and negative air-pressure cabinets for bench work. During the process of excision from the host chromosome, a phage may occasionally remove some bacterial DNA near the site of viral integration. These stages include. An alternative mechanism for viral nucleic acid synthesis is observed in the retroviruses, which are +ssRNA viruses (see Figure 6). Unlike the growth curve for a bacterial population, the growth curve for a virus population over its life cycle does not follow a sigmoidal curve. Examples of this are demonstrated by the poliovirus, which exhibits tropism for the tissues of the brain and spinal cord, or the influenza virus, which has a primary tropism for the respiratory tract. As it assembles and packages DNA into the phage head, packaging occasionally makes a mistake. Most plant viruses are transmitted by contact between plants, or by fungi, nematodes, insects, or other arthropods that act as mechanical vectors. Random packaging of bacterial genes and proteins into virus. Label the five stages of a bacteriophage infection in the figure: World Health Organization. Since this donor DNA is not viral DNA, it does not replicates inside recipient bacteria but undergoes homologous recombination with … The virus now can remain in the host for a long time to establish a chronic infection. Plant viruses are more similar to animal viruses than they are to bacteriophages. Click for a larger image. Whereas chickenpox affects many areas throughout the body, shingles is a nerve cell-specific disease emerging from the ganglia in which the virus was dormant. How is RecA protein involved in DNA repair. In August 2014, two infected US aid workers and a Spanish priest were treated with ZMapp, an unregistered drug that had been tested in monkeys but not in humans. •Generalized transduction: Occurs during the lytic cycle of viruses. There are viruses that are capable of remaining hidden or dormant inside the cell in a process called latency. Once a hospital realizes a patient like Duncan is infected with Ebola virus, the patient is immediately quarantined, and public health officials initiate a back trace to identify everyone with whom a patient like Duncan might have interacted during the period in which he was showing symptoms. What is the typical mutation rate per base pair? Must exist as a prophage. In the lytic cycle, the phage replicates and lyses the host cell. This change in the host phenotype is called lysogenic conversion or phage conversion. None contracted the disease. Test Prep. Transduction a bacterial virus transfers DNA from one cell to another 107 What. Plant viruses may have a narrow or broad host range. To understand the process of … How does reverse transcriptase aid a retrovirus in establishing a chronic infection? All viruses depend on cells for reproduction and metabolic processes. The chief difference that next appears in the viral growth curve compared to a bacterial growth curve occurs when virions are released from the lysed host cell at the same time. There are five stages in the bacteriophage lytic cycle (see Figure 1). The nature of the genome determines how the genome is replicated and expressed as viral proteins. During the lytic cycle of viral replication, the virus hijacks the host cell, degrades the host chromosome, and makes more viral genomes. Why can’t there be specialized transduction with a lytic virus? As it assembles and packages DNA into the phage head, packaging occasionally makes a mistake. Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. An example is the viral transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another and hence an example of horizontal gene transfer. It includes virus-based vectors such as lentiviral vectors, adeno-associated viruses (AAV) and adenoviruses. (b) After a period of latency, the virus can reactivate in the form of shingles, usually manifesting as a painful, localized rash on one side of the body. Transduction is a mechanism which transfers DNA from one bacterium to another bacterium by a bacteriophage. Transduction occurs when foreign DNA or RNA is introduced into bacterial or eukaryotic cells via a virus or viral vector.One example are bacteriophages that attach to bacterial membranes and inject their genetic material into the cell. For additional information about Ebola, please visit the CDC website. or In transduction, DNA is transferred from cell to cell through the agency of viruses NOTE :- All phages can be transducer and not all bacteria are transducible Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for the phage. Like it? Discuss the difference between generalized and specialized transduction. During the maturation phase, new virions are created. In a one-step multiplication curve for bacteriophage, the host cells lyse, releasing many viral particles to the medium, which leads to a very steep rise in viral titer (the number of virions per unit volume). The phages infecting these bacteria carry the toxin genes in their genome and enhance the virulence of the host when the toxin genes are expressed. Plant viruses may be enveloped or non-enveloped. RNA viruses that infect animal cells often replicate in the cytoplasm. Bacteriophages have lytic and lysogenic cycles. The newly synthesized +ssRNA copies can then be translated by cellular ribosomes. It then hijacks the host cell to replicate, transcribe, and translate the necessary viral components (capsomeres, sheath, base plates, tail fibers, and viral enzymes) for the assembly of new viruses. On September 15, nine days before he showed up at the hospital in Dallas, Duncan had helped transport an Ebola-stricken neighbor to a hospital in Liberia. Answer b. There are two types of transduction: generalized and specialized transduction. The two American aid workers recovered, but the priest died. This flowchart illustrates the mechanism of specialized transduction. During dormancy, viruses do not cause any symptoms of disease and may be difficult to detect. In what two ways can a virus manage to maintain a persistent infection? Transduction occurs when a bacteriophage transfers bacterial DNA from one bacterium to another during sequential infections. However, the virus maintains chronic persistence through several mechanisms that interfere with immune function, including preventing expression of viral antigens on the surface of infected cells, altering immune cells themselves, restricting expression of viral genes, and rapidly changing viral antigens through mutation. About 10 to 12 days postinfection, the disease resolves and the virus goes dormant, living within nerve-cell ganglia for years. The majority of plant viruses are positive-strand ssRNA and can undergo latency, chronic, or lytic infection, as observed for animal viruses. The RdRP is also an important enzyme for the replication of dsRNA viruses, because it uses the negative strand of the double-stranded genome as a template to create +ssRNA. Name and describe 3 ways that genetic material gets into bacterial cells, 25 out of 30 people found this document helpful. A virus obtains its envelope during which of the following phases? Which of the following leads to the destruction of the host cells? During the eclipse phase, Duncan would have been unable to transmit the disease to others. Bacteriophages that only use the lytic cycle are called virulent phages (in contrast to temperate phages). Not all animal viruses undergo replication by the lytic cycle. The major threat to the survival of omnipresent bacteria is the much simpler viruses. How was transformation discovered? It is typical of temperate phages to be latent or inactive within the cell. The life cycle begins with the penetration of the virus into the host cell. The hospital continued to treat Duncan, but he died several days after being admitted. The integrated phage genome is called a prophage. Differentiate between lytic and lysogenic cycles. Lytic Phage and Transduction I. Bacterial Virus = Phage = Bacteriophage General life cycles Lytic vs Lysogenic II. Duncan could conceivably have transmitted the disease to others at any time after he began having symptoms, presumably some time before his arrival at the hospital in Dallas. Answer d. Reverse transcriptase is brought into a cell by HIV. Know the analogs for thymine and adenine. For lytic viruses, _________________ is a phase during a viral growth curve when the virus is not detected. The resulting defective transducing phage (temperate phage) particles now have bacterial DNA as a part of genome. Should such drugs be dispensed and, if so, who should receive them, in light of their extremely limited supplies? In the lysogenic cycle, phage DNA is incorporated into the host genome, forming a prophage, which is passed on to subsequent generations of cells. Specialized transduction occurs when the prophage excises imprecisely from the chromosome so that bacterial genes lying adjacent to the prophage are included in the excised DNA. Inside the bacterium, viral DNA replicates and creates necessary components and enzymes to make new many bacteriophages. T-even phage is a good example of a well-characterized class of virulent phages. The DNA can then recombine with host chromosome, giving the latter new characteristics. Generalized transduction occurs when a random piece of bacterial chromosomal DNA is transferred by the phage during the lytic cycle. r/explainlikeimfive: Explain Like I'm Five is the best forum and archive on the internet for layperson-friendly explanations. Figure 3. (credit: modification of work by Randal J. Schoepp). Like many animal viruses, plant viruses can have either a DNA or RNA genome and be single stranded or double stranded. Further investigations revealed that Duncan had just returned from Liberia, one of the countries in the midst of a severe Ebola epidemic. The RdRP is brought in by the virus and can be used to make +ssRNA from the original −ssRNA genome. Viruses are strict parasites with extremely simple organisation just the genetic material either DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat. The lytic is the viral reproductive cycle in which a virus takes over all metabolic activities of a cell; replicates many times and destroy its host cell. Don't Panic! After examination, an emergency department doctor diagnosed him with sinusitis, prescribed some antibiotics, and sent him home. These "generalized" DNA can be carried to a new host •Specialized transduction: Temperate phage: incorporates into host's chromosome. Their genetic material is contained in a prism shaped head, surrounded by a protein capsid. Such an occurrence is called a burst, and the number of virions per bacterium released is described as the burst size. Pages 24; Ratings 83% (30) 25 out of 30 people found this document helpful. However, most plant viruses do not have a DNA genome; the majority have a +ssRNA genome, which acts like messenger RNA (mRNA). Specialized tranduction: normally occurs when the phage "decides" to leave the lysogenic phase. Not only are these drugs untested or unregistered but they are also in short supply. What is the structure and genome of a typical plant virus? As the bacterium replicates its chromosome, it also replicates the phage’s DNA and passes it on to new daughter cells during reproduction. Know the basic steps associated with this process. Later that month, the WHO released a report on the ethics of treating patients with the drug. Generalized tranduction: occurs during the lytic cycle in which the phage accidently packages a random piece of the bacterial DNA just before the bacteria lysis (before the bacterial cell breaks apart, the inside of the bacteria is in pieces). Many viruses are host specific, meaning they only infect a certain type of host; and most viruses only infect certain types of cells within tissues. RNA viruses can contain +ssRNA that can be directly read by the ribosomes to synthesize viral proteins. The phage head and remaining components remain outside the bacteria. In some occasions, DNA from a specific region of the host chromosome is integrated directly into the virus genome-usually replacing some viral genes. A prime example of a phage with this type of life cycle is the lambda phage. This corresponds, in part, to the eclipse period in the growth of the virus population. Mechanisms of persistent infection may involve the regulation of the viral or host gene expressions or the alteration of the host immune response. Is RNA-dependent RNA polymerase made from a viral gene or a host gene? Public health officials were able to track down 10 high-risk individuals (family members of Duncan) and 50 low-risk individuals to monitor them for signs of infection. Ebola is incurable and deadly. Viral genomic +ssRNA acts like cellular mRNA. Viruses reproduce via two mechanisms as lytic cycle and lysogenic cycle. Next, the virus is uncoated within the cytoplasm of the cell when the capsid is removed. In Transduction, DNA is transferred from one cell to another through the agency of viruses. This, along with Duncan’s initial misdiagnosis, made it clear that US hospitals needed to provide additional training to medical personnel to prevent a possible Ebola outbreak in the US. Transduction a bacterial virus transfers dna from one. Figure 9. His condition had deteriorated and additional blood tests confirmed that he has been infected with the Ebola virus. Many viruses follow several stages to infect host cells. However, one of the nurses charged with Duncan’s care did become infected. The two primary categories of persistent infections are latent infection and chronic infection. An integrated phage excises, bringing with it a piece of the DNA adjacent to its insertion point. In the eclipse phase, viruses bind and penetrate the cells with no virions detected in the medium. Transduction is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector. http://apps.who.int/gho/data/view.ebola-sitrep.ebola-summary-20150318?lang=en, http://firstname.lastname@example.org, Describe the lytic and lysogenic life cycles, Describe the replication process of animal viruses, Describe unique characteristics of retroviruses and latent viruses, Discuss human viruses and their virus-host cell interactions, Describe the replication process of plant viruses. The various mechanisms that HIV uses to avoid being cleared by the immune system are also used by other chronically infecting viruses, including the hepatitis C virus. If the viral genome is RNA, a different mechanism must be used. As it assembles and packages DNA into the phage head, packaging occasionally makes a mistake. These types of viruses are known as latent viruses and may cause latent infections. (credit: modification of work by NIAID, NIH). HIV, an enveloped, icosahedral retrovirus, attaches to a cell surface receptor of an immune cell and fuses with the cell membrane. Do RNA or DNA genomes typically have more mutations? If a phage is in the lysogenic phase, it's DNA will stay in the bacterial genome … Answer a. Transduction is the name for the transfer of genetic information from one bacterium to another bacterium by a phage. During lysogeny, the prophage will persist in the host chromosome until induction, which results in the excision of the viral genome from the host chromosome. For example, the citrus tristeza virus infects only a few plants of the Citrus genus, whereas the cucumber mosaic virus infects thousands of plants of various plant families. However, some viruses can only be transferred by a specific type of insect vector; for example, a particular virus might be transmitted by aphids but not whiteflies. During the initial stage, an inoculum of virus causes infection. The presence of the phage may alter the phenotype of the bacterium, since it can bring in extra genes (e.g., toxin genes that can increase bacterial virulence). Similar, and at times, confusing, understanding the difference between both these cycles depends largely on studying each of them individually. Figure 4. However, some conditions (e.g., ultraviolet light exposure or chemical exposure) stimulate the prophage to undergo induction, causing the phage to excise from the genome, enter the lytic cycle, and produce new phages to leave host cells. A chronic infection is a disease with symptoms that are recurrent or persistent over a long time. Specialized transduction results in the movement of only specific genes. During the lytic cycle of virulent phage, the bacteriophage takes over the cell, reproduces new phages, and destroys the cell. The asexual transfer of genetic information can allow for DNA recombination to occur, thus providing the new host with new genes (e.g., an antibiotic-resistance gene, or a sugar-metabolizing gene). This unique recognition can be exploited for targeted treatment of bacterial infection by phage therapy or for phage typing to identify unique bacterial subspecies or strains. Since the DNA transferred by the phage is not randomly packaged but is instead a specific piece of DNA near the site of integration, this mechanism of gene transfer is referred to as specialized transduction (see Figure 3). The third stage of infection is biosynthesis of new viral components. This preview shows page 19 - 24 out of 24 pages. It is capable of attaching to the bacterial cell wall and injecting its DNA to the bacterium. 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